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During the later half of the 18th century and the first half of the 19th century, a distinct form of architecture flourished under the Nawabs of Avadh (Oudh), whose first manifestation was noticed in the form of Safdar Jung's tomb, built in the honour of Safdar Jung (1739-1753), who was the nephew of the first Nawab of Oudh. The city of Lucknow witnessed large building enterprises under Nawab Asif-ud-Daula (1775-1795). The most representative architectural achievement of this period is the Bara Imambara built by the Nawab in 1784. Absence of pillars in the main hall and simplicity of style and symmetry are its unique features. On the western side of the Bara Imambara is the Rumi Darwaza in which ornamental designs radiate from the base to the top on both the sides in the most expressive manner. A 67-metre clock tower was built near the Rumi Darwaza in 1881. The Chota Imambara or Husainabad Imambara, built by Muhammad Ali Shah as his tomb, and the Shahnajaf Imambara, housing the tomb of Nawab Ghaziuddin Haidar are other note-worthy buildings following this style of architecture.

Towards the middle of the 19th century, the architectural style of Avadh began to be impregnated with elements from European sources. Major General Claude Martin (1735-1800) built a large and pretentious building at Lucknow, then known as "Constantia", which was one of the first large buildings of the European style built in North India. This building, which had several Palladian elements, set the tone for the development of a hybrid style of architecture in Lucknow depicting a degenerative combination of Mughal and Gothic styles. The best examples of this style of architecture are the Chattar Manzil built by Nawab Naziruddin Haider and the Kaiser Bagh built by Nawab Wajid Ali Shah between 1845 and 1850. The Chattar Manzil is an imposing building, whose main attractions are the underground rooms and a beautiful dome surrounded by a gilt umbrella. The Kaiser Bagh is a quadrangular park with a baradari (pavilion) and yellow-coloured buildings on three sides. The Roshanwali Koti and the Begum Koti at Hazratgunj are other buildings where the Italian style is more prominent.


In Punjab a distinct style of architecture developed under the influence of the Mughal style. It was characterised by certain indigenous features like the multiplicity of chattris or kiosks, the use of fluted dome generally covered with copper or brass-gilt and enrichment of arches by numerous foliations. This architecture was best manifested in the construction of the Golden Temple at Amritsar in 1764 built by the fourth Sikh Guru Ramdas.

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