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THE PROVINCIAL STYLE OF ARCHITECTURE
Provincial Style of Architecture encompasses the architectural
trends and developments noticed in different provincial capitals in
India, but specifically in Punjab (1150-1325 AD), Bengal (1203-1573
AD), Gujarat (1300-1572 AD), Jaunpur (1376-1479 AD), Malwa
(1405-1569 AD), Deccan (1347-1617 AD), Bijapur (1490-1656 AD),
Khandesh (1425-1650 AD) and Kashmir (1410 onwards).
The Pandua and Adina mosques are the earliest architectural
examples in Bengal. The tomb of Akhi Surajuddin, the Kotwali Darwaza,
the Dakhil Darwaza and the tomb of Sultan Jalaluddin Mohammad Shah
(1414-1431 AD), known as the Eklakhi Tomb, served as prototypes for
the subsequent Islamic architecture of Bengal.
The other important buildings of Bengal include Tantipara
Masjid (1475 AD), Chamkatti Masjid (1475 AD), Lotan Masjid (1480
AD), Chota Sona Masjid (1510 AD) and the Qadam Rasool Mosque (1530
the Sharqi dynasty Jaunpur became a great centre of art, culture and
architectural activity. During
the rule of Shamsuddin Ibrahim (1402-1436 AD) several palaces,
mosques, tombs and other buildings came up, the most prominent being
the Atala Masjid built in 1378.
Later other important buildings were produced that include
Khalis Mukhlis Masjid (1430 AD), Jhangiri Masjid (1430 AD) Lal
Darwaza Masjid (1450 AD) and the Jami Masjid (1470 AD).
witnessed significant architectural activity for over 250 years
starting from Muzaffar Shah's declaration of independence from Delhi
and the formation of the Sultanate of Gujarat in 1307 AD until the
conquest of Gujarat by the Mughal Emperor Akbar in 1500 AD.
The early phase of the architecture belonging to the 14th
century is represented by the Tomb of Baba Farid and the Adina
Masjid at Pathan, Jama Masjid of Bharuch (1300), Jami Masjid at
Cambay (1325) and the Hilal Khan Qazi's mosque in Dholka (1333).
Under the rule of Ahmed Shahi (early 15th century)
and Mahmud I Begarha (1459-1511) different types of mosques, tombs
and gateways were built at Ahmedabad, Dholka and Sarkhej. Ahmedabad is a city full of architectural masterpieces which
include Sayyid Alam's mosque (1412), Teen Darwaza (1415), Tomb of Ahmed Shah (1440), Rani-ka-Hujra (1440), the
Jami Masjid (built by the city’s founder Sultan Ahmed Shah in
1423), Qutubuddin's mosque (1454), Rani Sipri Mosque (1505), Sidi
Bashir's Mosque (1510), which is famous for its “shaking
minarets”, Rani Rupmati Masjid at Mirzapur (built between 1430 and
1440) and the Kankaria Lake, constructed in 1451 by Sultan
cities of Dhar and Mandu of the Malwa province provide examples of
distinct architectural elements in the form of polychromatic
ornamentation of buildings, which was obtained by the use of
coloured stones and marble as well as by means of encaustic tiles.
The earliest buildings of this period are the Kamal Maula
Masjid (1400) and the Lat Masjid (1405) at Dhar and the Dilawar Khan
Masjid (1405) and the Malik Mughis mosque (1452) at Mandu.
The architectural activity took a new turn with the
establishment of the capital at Mandu, especially under the rule of
Hoshang Shah (1405-1435). Important buildings in Mandu are the Jahaz
Mahal (a 120 meter long 'ship palace' built by Sultan
Ghiyas-ud-din-Khilji between two artificial lakes Munj Talao and
Kapur Talao), Taveli Mahal with two wells called Ujali and Andheri
Baoli, Hindola Mahal, Dilawar Khan's Mosque, Hoshang Shah's Tomb,
Ashrafi Mahal and the Jami Masjid built by Mahmud Shah Khilji I. As Mandu or the 'City of Joy' was associated with the romance
of the poet-prince Baz Bahadur and Rani Roopmati, many buildings are
devoted to them like the Baz Bahadur's Palace and Roopmati's
Pavilion. The city also has several gateways like the Delhi Darwaza,
the Alamgir and Bhangi Darwaza, Rampol Darwaza, Jehangir Gate and
architecture of the Deccan is marked by its distinct originality and
independence of style, unlike the architectural styles of the other
provinces which combined both the temple architecture and the
Islamic building ideals. It derived its elements from the
architectural styles of the Sultan of Delhi and that of the distant
Persia. These aspects are best illustrated by the evolution of tombs
in the Deccan. The earliest specimen afforded by the tomb of
Allauddin (14th century) was an imitation in toto of the
Tughlaq style of Delhi. The
tombs of the 15th century built by the Bahmani rulers of
Bidar depict distinct Persian elements dexterously combined with
those of the Delhi style. Finally,
the tombs of the Qutb Shahi dynasties of the 16th and 17th
centuries show a fully developed bulbous or "Tartar" dome,
indicating its complete evolution by the amalgamation of various
differing styles. The
earliest period of architectural development started in 1347 when
Allauddin Bahman Shah constructed the Gulbarga Fort and the Jami
Masjid at Gulbarga. The
second phase is represented by the architecture of Bidar initiated
by Ahmed Shah (1422-1436), which includes the Bidar Fort, Mahmud
Gawan's Madrassa and the Ali Barid's Tomb.
Qutub Shahi and Nizam Shahi dynasties contributed greatly towards
the development of the Deccan style of architecture. The best
architectural specimen is the Charminar built in 1591 by Mohammed
Quli Qutb Shah. Often
called "Arc de triumph of
the East", it is a beautiful structure with four
intricately carved minarets built with granite and lime-mortar. The
Mecca Masjid, located near the Charminar, is another architectural
beauty. It was started in 1614 by Abdullah Qutub Shah and completed
in 1687 by Aurangzeb. The Golconda Fort built by Mohammed Quli Qutb
Shah in 1525 was an impregnable fort of great strategic importance
to most of the rulers. The Qutb Shahi Tombs are a cluster of six
magnificent tombs situated a kilometer north of Golconda Fort's
Banjara Darwaza. These
are built in a unique architectural style which is a mixture of
Persian, Pathan and Hindu forms. The tomb of the fifth king of the
Qutb Shahi dynasty and founder of Hyderabad - Mohammed Quli Qutb
Shah is one of the largest and most imposing of these monuments.
The Chowmahalla Palalce built in 1750 by Nizam Salabat Jung
was designed along the lines of the Shah's palace in Tehran and
consists of a group of palaces each used for a specific purpose. It
consists of the Khilwat, Aftab Mahal, the Tahniyat Mahal and the
Durbar Hall. The
Falaknuma Palace built in 1870 by Nawab Vikar-Ul-Ulmara, the Prime
Minister of Hyderabad is a rare blend of Italian and Tudor
Adil Shahi dynasty of Bijapur constructed several mosques, tombs and
development of the dome reached its acme during their reign.
They also borrowed some elements like the use of symbol of
crescent from the Ottoman Empire. The most distinct monument of this
period is, undoubtedly, the Gol Gumbaz built by Mohammad Adil Shah,
which is largest masonry dome in the world. The dome is 51metres
high and has a diameter of 37metres. The dome is an engineering
marvel since it stands unsupported by any pillars.
It also has an excellent acoustic system. Bijapur is also
famous for the Sat Manzil, Ibrahim Roza, Bara Kaman, Mehtar Mahal,
Nagar Khana and the Gagan Mahal.
Ibrahim Roza is the tomb of Adil Shai Sultan Ibrahim II
Islamic architecture of Kashmir is typified by use of woodwork. The
log construction using deodar trees for the construction of wooden
bridges called kadals or
the wooden shrines called ziarats
are the best illustrations of wooden architecture of Kashmir. The mosque of Shah Hamdan in Srinagar and the Jami Masjid at
Srinagar built by Sikandar Butshikan (1400 AD) are the typical
examples of the wooden architecture of Kashmir.
The Mughals tried to revive the art of stone building in
Kashmir in the 16th and 17th centuries.
The Fort of Hari Parbat, the Pattar Masjid (1623) and the
Akhun Mulla Shah's mosque (1649) are illustrations of these efforts.
Shah Suri of the Sur dynasty also made noteworthy contribution to
the Indo-Islamic architecture. The town of Sasaram in Bihar is an
excellent illustration of the Suri monuments, which are in the form
of four tombs viz., Sher Shah's Tomb, the tomb of his father, Hasan
Sur Khan built in 1535, the tomb of his son Salim Shah and the tomb
of Alwal Khan, the chief architect of Sher Shah. The tomb of Sher
Shah Suri is an architectural masterpiece that was to have a
profound impact on the evolution of Indo-Islamic architecture.
Sher Shah's another great contribution was the completion of
the sixth city of Delhi called the Shergarh or Dilli Sher Shai
around the Purana Qila area in
1540s. The Purana Qila has three main gates - the Humayun darwaza, Talaqi darwaza
and Bara darwaza. The
Qila-i-kuhna masjid built
by Sher Shah Suri in 1541AD is one of the most fascinating buildings
in the Purana Qila.
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||Introduction||Temple Architecture|| Cave Architecture||Rajput Architecture|| Jain Architecture || Indo-Islamic Architecture||Colonial Architecture||Modern Architecture||Sculpture in India||World Heritage Sites||
||Famous Architects & Sculptors of India||