Two main Gharanas of
Hindustani music evolved during the reign of Allauddin Khilji:
Gharana, founded by Baiju Bawra and propagated by Nayak
Gopal which included the singers of the Dhrubapada style of
music and the instrumentalists who played on Saraswati Veena
in accompaniment to the vocal Raga Alap and Dhrubapada songs
The Kawal Gharana, founded and
propagated by Amir Khusro and later on by Sultan Hussain
Sarki of Jaunpur. Later on, a third Gharana was formed by
the instrumentalists who used to play on Sanhai and Tabla.
With the increase of the number of female singers and
dancing girls in the court, there arose a fourth Gharana of
instrumentalist accompanying them. The Ustads of the third
and fourth Gharana were called Mirasis and Dhadis.
Later the following Schools of instruments became renowned:
the Carnatic Veena banis, the Gwalior Gharana
(instrumental), the Imdadkhani Gharana, the Moradabad
Gharana, the Maihar Gharana and the Tabla Gharanas.
The Sarasota Veena banns:
There are 4 main Sarasota Veena banns: Tanager ban,
Karaikudi bani, the Mysore bani and the
The Instrumental Gwalior Gharana:
The Gwalior school of instrumental khayal is one of the most
ancients. Rahimat Khan is credited with the reunification of
the instrumental Khayal of the Gwalior played on sitar in
the 19th century and the instrumental dhrupad of the Gwalior,
a style that has become very rare, played on the Been.
The Imdadkhani Gharana:
The style was created by Imdad Khan from the Gwalior gharana.
Ustad Vilayat Khan and Ustad Shujaat Khan are the two
important names associated with the Imdadkhani Gharana.
The Moradabad Gharana:
The Moradabad Gharana of instrumental Khayal was born in the
middle of the 18th century, as accompanist of the Rampur
Gharana from which the actual forms of musical composition
originate. Ustad Sabri Khan is considered as the senior-most
musician of this gharana.
The Maihar Gharana:
The Maihar Gharana of instrumental Khayal was born in the
middle of the 19th century, from within the Rampur Gharana.
The credit for developing this style of music goes to Ustad
Allauddin Khan, who is the father of Ustad Ali Akbar Khan
and father-in-law of Pandit Ravi Shankar.
The Tabla Gharanas:
There are many ways a tabla can be played. Six main styles
or bajs have been identified. They are Delhi, Ajrara and
Punjab from the Paschim baj and Benaras, Farukabad and
Lucknow from the Purab baj. Some of the well-known names of
the various Tabla Gharanas and their renowned exponents are
as follows: Delhi Gharana: Game Khan, Chhote Kale Khan,
Hidayat Khan, Mahadev Indorkar, Illahi Bux Khan, Azim Khan,
Ahmedjan Thirakwa, Rafiuddin Sabri, Divyang Vakil, Latif
Ahmed Khan, Sudhir Kumar Saxena, Ram Kumar Mishra and
Shakeel Ahmad Khan.
Ustad Dayam Ali Qadri, Abhijit Banerjee, Gyan Prakash Ghosh,
Munir Khan, Nanne Khan, Aneesh Pradhan, Nikhil Ghosh, Bikram
Ghosh, Gyan Prakash Ghosh, Tanmoy Bose, Taranath Rao and
Pandit Ragunath Nakod, Abhimaan Kaushal, Sheikh Dawood, Abid
Hussain Khan, Wajid Hussain Khan, Hirendra Ganguly, Swapan
Chaudhuri, Ravi Gutala, Jehangir Khan (Indore), Mohammed
Khan and Alladiya Khan (Hyderabad).
Founder: Pandit Ram Sahai, Anand Gopal Bandopadhyay, Anil
Palit, Mahadeo Prasad Mishra, Kishan Maharaj/Kanthe Maharaj,
Anokhelal Mishra, Baldev Sahai, Badri Maharaj, Beeru Mishra,
Birju Maharaj, Wajid Hussain Khan, Kashinath Mishra,
Biswanath Bose, Anokhelal Mishra, Samta Prasad Mishra (also
known as Gudai Maharaj), Ram Sahai, Kishore Kumar Mishra,
Vinod Lele, Maruti Venkatesh Kurdekar and Sandeep Das, etc.
Akram Khan, Bandoo Khan, Ghulam Sarwar Sabri, Habibuddin
Khan, Raghunath Nakod, Ramzan Khan, Shakeel Ahmed Khan,
Natthu Khan and Niazu Khan.
Ustad Allah Rakha Khan and his son Ustad Zakir Hussain,
Abdul Sattar, Tari Khan, Shaukat Hussain, Anuradha Pal,
Kader Baksh, Fazal Qureshi and Faqir Baksh.
Vasant Achrekar, Narayanrao Indorkar, Balakrishna Iyer,
Kedar Pandit, Khaprumam Parvatkar, S.K.Hangal, Taranath Rao,
Suresh Talwalkar, Pandharinath Nageshkar and Kiran Deshpande.
Two Sitar Gharanas are famous: Seni Gharana of Sitar of
Jaipur, founded by the celebrated Amrita Sen and the Sitar
Gharana of Lucknow founded by Gulam Mohammad Khan, a
disciple of Omrao Khan Seni.
There are two famous Gharanas of Sarod: the Sarod Gharana of
Saharanpur which is patronised by the disciples of Omrao
Khan and a son of Nirmal Sha Seni and the Sarod Gharana
founded by Niamutulla Khan, a disciple of Basat Khan Seni.