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Maestros of Instrumental Music

o Ali Akbar Khan

Ustad Ali Akbar Khan (1922-2009), popularly known as the "Indian Johann Sebastian Bach", is considered a "National Living Treasure" in India.  He is one of the greatest Sarod players of all times. He is also adept in other instruments like the Pakhawaj and Tabla. He also mastered different forms of music like dhrupad, dhammar and khayal from his father Ustad Allauddin Khan. Ali Akbar Khan gave his first public performance in Allahabad at age thirteen. In his early twenties, he became the court musician for the Maharaja of Jodhpur. Since his father's death in 1972, He has continued his father's tradition, that of the Baba Allauddin Seni Gharana of Maihar in Central India. He has composed music for the Bengali films Kshudhito Pashan and Devi and for the Hindi film Andhiyan. A devoted musician, his aim has been to promote better understanding of Indian music in the Western world. He performed an unprecedented concert at the Museum of Modern Art in New York way back in 1955. Since then, he has continued to tour extensively in Asia, Africa, Europe, The Netherlands, Australia, Canada, and the United States. In order to popularize Indian classical music, Ali Akbar founded colleges to teach Indian music in Japan, Canada and the US. He also established a College of Music in Calcutta in 1956. He is credited with the introduction of five new ragas, Chandranandan, Gauri-Manjari, Lajwanti, Mishra-Shivaranjani and Hem-Hindol. He is the recipient of several awards which include the President of India award (1963), Padma Bhushan, Padma Vibushan (1988), Sangeet Natak Akademi Award (1963), Sangeet Natak fellowship (1992) and the Kalidas Samman (1991).  He is also conferred with an honorary Doctorate Degree in Arts from the California Institute of the Arts, in Valencia, CA. He has also received the degree of Doctor of Literature, honoree causa, from the Rabindra Bharati University in Calcutta.  In June of 1991, Ali Akbar Khan became the first Indian musician to be awarded the most prestigious Macarthur Foundation Fellowship in recognition of his excellent work in the field of creating, cultivating and transmitting the highly complex musical tradition of Northern India. He has received four Grammy Award nominations: in 1970 for Shree Rag, in 1983 for Misra Piloo, in 1996 for Then and Now, and recently in 1997 for Legacy.

o Alla Rakha

Ustad Alla Rakha (1919-2000) was one of the most celebrated tabla players in the world. He was hailed not only for his performing finesse but also for the incomparable accompaniment he provided to other musicians. Alla Rakha got his initial training from Lal Ahmed and later from the renowned Mian Kader Baksh of the Punjab Gharana and Ashiq Ali Khan of the Patiala Gharana. In 1936 he entered the Bombay film world as a music director under his real name, A.R. Qureshi and scored music for a number of Hindi and Punjabi films, including superhits like Sabak, Khandan, Maa Baap, Madari and Bewafa. He founded the Institute of Music in Mumbai in 1986. He earned great recognition abroad as a soloist and accompanist, with a string of awards in San Francisco and California. He was the recipient of Padma Shri (1977), the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award (1982), the Indo-American Achievement Award and the Maharashtra Gaurav Puraskar. He died of heart attack on 4 February 2000 in Mumbai.

o    Baba Allauddin Khan

Ustad Baba Allauddin Khan (1862-1972) is a legendary figure in Indian music. He developed a thirst for music and musical knowledge from a very young age that eventually led to one of the most incredible musical journeys of this century. He mastered many instruments including Tabla, Violin, Sursringar and Surbahar but finally turned to the Sarod and became a student of the Sarod wizard Ahmed Ali Khan. The great Wazir Khan of Rampur, scion of the Seni Beenkar Gharana taught him for 12 years. He himself remained a student of music till the age of 70 completely mastering the Dhrupad and instrumental compositions of the Seni Gharana and adding innumerable new compositions and many new Ragas, such as Hemant, Shobhavati and Durgeshwari. His eventual contributions are so outstanding that today this Gharana is known as the Seni Baba Allauddin Gharana. Among his large number of disciples, the most famous are his son the supreme Sarodist Ustad Ali Akbar Khan and his son-in-law the Sitar Maestro Pandit Ravi Shankar.

 

o    Amjad Ali Khan

Ustad Amjad Ali Khan (b.1945) is one of the greatest exponents of Sarod. He learnt the Sarod from his father Hafiz Ali Khan. He has the distinction of being the first north Indian artist to have performed in honour of Thyagaraja at the saint-musician’s Thiruvaiyur shrine. He founded the Hafiz Ali Khan Memorial Society in 1977, which organises music festivals in different parts of India. He made many changes to the conventional style and structure of the Sarod. He has also been an innovator in introducing the gayaki ang in the Sarod, which has added new dimensions to performances on this instrument. He has contributed in propagating and creating music for children. He has composed special songs for children all over the country, including a special ‘Birthday Song’. He has composed new ragas like Amiri Todi, Haripriya Kannada, Jawahar Manjari and Shivanjali for special occasions. He is the recipient of many awards and honours including the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award (1989), Padma Shri (1975),  Tansen Award (1989), the Padma Bhushan (1991) and the International Music Forum Award, UNESCO (1970).

 

o     Dr Bal Murali Krishna

Dr Bal Murali Krishna (b.1930) is an enterprising instrumentalist who plays Violin, Khanjira, Veena and Mridangam, besides being a renowned music composer. He is the recipient of several awards which include Padma Vibhushan, Padma Shri (1971), the Best Play Back Singer (23rd National Film Festival, 1976), Best Music Director (34th National Film Festival, 1987) and the UNESCO Mahatma Gandhi Silver Medal (1995).  Dr. Balamuralikrishna has also been conferred with Doctor of Letters by the Sri Venkateshwara University (1981).

 

o     Bismillah Khan

Bismillah Khan (1916-2006) was the most outstanding and popular Shehnai player of contemporary times. His ancestors were court musicians in the princely state of Dumraon in Bihar and he was trained under his uncle, the late Ali Bux `Vilayatu’, a Shehnai player attached to Varanasi’s Vishwanath Temple. His first major public appearance was in 1930 at the age of 14, when he played in the All India Music Conference in Allahabad.  Ustad Bismillah Khan’s specialisation lies in his ability to produce intricate sound patterns on the Shehnai which was hitherto, considered impossible on this instrument. For his outstanding services in the field of music, he has been bestowed with several honours and awards including, the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award (1956), Shehnai Chakravarti by the National Cultural Organisation (955), Padma Shri (1961), Padma Bhushan, Padma Vibhushan and the Tansen Award. A jugalbandi of the Shehnai and Sitar performed by Bismillah Khan and Sitat Nawaz Abdul Halim Jaffar Khan, for the film Gunj Uthi Shehnai was an outstanding success. He performed at the Edinburgh Festival along with Ustad Vilayat Khan and the album produced, known as Thumri Piloo, is considered as one of the best by the Ustad. He has also been conferred with honorary doctorates from the Benares Hindu University and Shantiniketan.

 

o     Bundu Khan

Bundu Khan (1880-1955) is the legendary Sarangi Nawaz belonging to the Delhi Gharana.  He has written several parts of Sangit Viveka Darpan, which was published in 1934.

 

o    Chinna Maula

Chinna Maula (1924-1999), who is a renowned Nagaswara player in South India, hails from an illustrious music family whose ancestry goes back to Sheikh Nabi Sahib (18th Century).  He gave his first concert in 1960.  Chinna Maula's favourite themes are Ramayana and Mahabharata.   He is a recipient of several honours and awards which include Padma Shri, Kalaimamani, Nagaswara Kalanidhi, Kala Prapoorna, Isai Perarignar, etc.  In 1982 he founded and nurtured the Sarada Nagaswara Sangeeta Asramam in Srirangam, which later produced several promomising nagaswaram players like Pedda Kasim, Chinna Kasim, Mahaboob Subani and Kalishabi.

 

o    T.V. Gopalakrishnan

 T.V. Gopalakrishnan (b.1932) has a solid musical heritage of over two centuries. He is an accomplished Mridangam artiste and a creative music composer gifted with a mellow, bass voice, capable of a large and panoramic range. He is especially famous for bringing out the rich tonal colours and the evocative and articulate rhythm patterns on both faces of the Mridangam

 

o    Hariprasad Chaurasia

Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia (b. 1938) is one of the most popular contemporary flautists and is regarded as the greatest living master of the north Indian flute. He belongs to the Senia gharana but has imbibed the best features and facets of other forms and styles in his presentation. As a musician, Chaurasia is a rare combination of innovator and traditionalist and has significantly expanded the expressive possibilities of classical North Indian flute. He learnt the techniques of vocal classical music from Pandit Raja Ram of Benaras and the renowned Annapurna Shankar. Later, he switched to flute playing after hearing Pandit Bholanath, a noted flautist from Varanasi. He tutored under Pandit Bholanath for eight years and in 1957, he became a regular member of All India Radio in Cuttack, Orissa where he worked as a performer and a composer. He is the recipient of several honours and awards like the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award (1983), Maharashtra Gaurav Puraskar (1990), Padma Bhushan (1992), the Konarak Samman (1992) and the Yash Bharati Sanman by UP government (1994). Chaurasia tours the world regularly and has recorded with artistes like John McLaughlin to Jan Garbarek. He is the only Indian soloist to have performed at the Bolshoi Theatre in Moscow, and his playing caused appreciative riots in the Theatre Odeon in Paris. He, along with Shivkumar Sharma, composed the scores for Hindi films like Silsila and Chandni. He has also recorded a compact disc at Oslo along with Western artists John Mclaughlin and Jan Garbarek, which has gained international popularity.

 

o  V.G.Jog

Vishnu Govind Jog (1922-2004) is an established violinist whose name is synonymous with the violin genre in Hindustani classical. His recitals are known for their dignity and crispness of swara and tala.  He is noted for the purity of his rendition and the ease with which he communicates the idioms of music. His style owes much to the Gwalior, Agra and Bakhley Gharanas. He was professor of Instrumental Music at the Bhatkhande University of Music, Lucknow till 1952. He is a recipient of several honours and awards, which include the Vadya Nipurna from the Bhatkhande University of Music, Lucknow (1944), the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award (1980) and the Padma Bhushan (1983). He was given the title of ‘Tantri Vilas’ by Swami Haridas Sangeet Sammelan Mumbai in 1978 and the Lalit Kala Pitra, Bhuvaneshwar, Orissa conferred on him the title of ‘Behala Samrat’ in 1980. In 1973 the Indian Music Circle of Vassar, USA honoured him as ‘Violin Samrat’.

 

o    Lalgudi Jayaraman

Lalgudi Jayaraman is a violin virtuoso who has excelled far beyond anyone else since the time of Dwaram Sri Venkateswara Naidu. The unique feature about Lalgudi is that his music is very expressive. Lalgudi's instrumental genius comes to the fore in the form of lyrical excellence.  More particularly, there is no structural damage done to the edifice of the composition as envisaged by the composer, be it a Varnam, Kriti, Tillana or a Padam.  He is probably one of a select few instrumentalists who is capable of rendering a very good vocal music concert. The quality in his playing is spellbinding and his technique is immaculate. He has been in great demand for accompanying vocalists, and has accompanied such great vocal virtuosos as Ariyakkudi Sri Ramanuja Iyengar, Semmangudi Sri Srinivasa Iyer, Sri G. N. Balasubramaniam, Alathur Brothers and Karaikkudi Sambasiva Iyer.

 

o    U. 'Mandolin' Srinivas

Upalappu Srinivas (b.1969) is a child prodigy who was the first to use mandolin in Carnatic music. Having begun playing when he was only six years old, Srinivas's musical aptitude was spotted by Subbaraju, a classically trained musician and disciple of the famous musical stalwart Chembai Vaidyanata Bhagavatar. U.Srinivas is already a winner of Padma Shri at the age of 29. He became renowned for his jazz-fusion concerts with the famous violinist L.Subramaniam and also with the ghazal singer Hari Haran.  He produced an album called 'Dreams' with the Canadian guitarist Michael Brooks.

 

o Pannalal Ghosh


Amulya Jyoti (nicknamed Pannalal) Ghosh (1911-1960) was a famous flautist, who was in a family of musicians in Barisal, East Bengal (now in Bangladesh). His grandfather, Hari Kumar Ghosh, was a famous Dhrupad artist and his father, Akshay Kumar Ghosh, was a famous Sitar player.  Pannalal Ghosh was a child prodigy, who inherited his love of music and the bamboo flute (bansuri) from his father and grandfather. In 1938 he visited a number of foreign countries with a group named Sarai-Kala-Nrtya. After returning from abroad, he became the disciple of Girija Sankar Chakraborty. His final rigorous training came in 1947 under the guidance of Ustad Baba Allaudin Khan. Pannalal Ghosh is credited with the raising the bansuri, which was hitherto used only as a folk instrument, to the level of a concert instrument in classical music. One of his peculiarities was his use of three kinds of flute alternately for different 'Saptakas'. He could produce any human sound with his flute. He worked extensively for many Indian films, initially under the well known music director Anil Biswas. Later he worked as the composer of the national orchestra for the All India Radio.

o   Ram Narayan

Pandit Ram Narayan (b.1927) ranks among the most eminent Sarangi players of today. He belongs to a family, which can boast of an unbroken line of five generations of vocalists and instrumentalists of great caliber. Pt. Ram Narayan's formal training started at the age of 7. He received guidance from many veterans such as Ustad Mehboob Khan, Pandit Udayalal, Pandit Madhav Prasad and Ustad Abdul Wahid Khan. Ram Narayan continuously experimented with the structure of the Sarangi and the bow, making necessary modifications in them. He also brought about changes in the traditional bowing technique as well as finger technique. He has performed extensively in India and abroad winning great acclaim and numerous notable awards such as Padma Shri and Sangeet Natak Akademi Award. He has recorded many long discs in India and abroad. He has also authored a book on Indian classical music which was published by Manchester University Press. 

o       Ravi Kiran

Born in 1967 into a musical family, Ravikiran is considered an unprecedented phenomenon in Carnatic music. His grandfather Sri K. S. Narayana Iyengar was a renowned gottuvadhyam artiste and his father, Sri Narasimhan, is also a gifted gottuvadhyam artiste and vocalist. By the age of twelve, Ravikiran was a full-fledged vocal artiste and was given an A-grade ranking in All India Radio. At around this age, he switched over from vocal music to the difficult Chitra Veena or gottuvadhyam and within a short time he mastered the instrument. Ravikiran has performed all around the world at major international festivals including the Autumn Festival of France (1985), Rang Raag Festival, U.K. (1986), the International Music Festival of Radio France (1987) and Festivals of India in France, Germany and Switzerland.. Ravikiran started receiving many awards and titles from 1973 including 'Best Junior Musician' (Music Academy, Madras), 'Sangeeth Samraat' (Wisdom International), 'Kalaimamani' (Tamil Nadu Government), 'Sangeeta Choodamani' (Krishna Gana Sabha) and 'Isai Peroli' (Karthik Fine Arts). 

o       Ravi Shankar

Pandit Ravi Shankar (b.1920), one of the greatest exponents of the sitar, is the most popular Indian musician all over the world. Yehudi Menuhin, the world famous violinist described him as "a creative genius comparable only to Mozart". Pandit Ravi Shankar has received widespread acclaim for his creativity and distinct, unorthodox style of playing the Sitar. He is acclaimed around the world for his originality and improvisation. He also has a command on instruments like Surbahar, Been, Rabab and Sursingar. In January 1945, he composed the music score for the famous patriotic song, Sare Jahan Se Aacha, Hindustan Hamara, written by the famous Urdu poet Mohammad Iqbal. Pandit Ravi Shankar has to his credit several ragas like Nat Bhairav, Pancham Se Gara, Kameshwari, Parameshwari and Ganeshwari. Raga Mohankauns was composed in honour of Mahatma Gandhi. In May 1967, he founded the Kinnara School of Music in Bombay and Los Angles. He has composed extensively for films and ballets in India, Canada, Europe and the United States, including Charly, Gandhi and Apu Trilogy. He has the honour of being the first Indian to write film music for foreign films. Ravi Shankar has received several honours and awards as a sitarist, composer and musician. His music for the film Gandhi won him an Oscar nomination. He is the first Indian to receive the highest award of the Berlin Film Festival, the Silver Bear, for his music in the Indian film Kabuliwala. In 1969, he was cited as ‘Musician of the Year’ by one of the leading magazines of America’s musical industry, Billboard Magazine. He is also the first Indian Musician to be commissioned by a major Western Orchestra, the London Philharmonic, to compose a Concerto for Sitar and Orchestra. This Concerto was performed in 1971 and conducted by Andre Previn. His long list of awards and honours include fourteen doctorates, Padma Bhushan (1967), the Padma Vibhushan (1981), Desikottam,  the Ramon Magsaysay Award, two Grammys, the Fukuoka Grand Prize from Japan, the Crystal award from Davos, with the title 'Global Ambassador', Kalidas Samman Award, Rajiv Gandhi Excellence Award (1991), Bharatiya Vidya Bhavan Mahatma Gandhi Award and Premium Imperiale Arts Award from The Japan Art Association, the Presidential Award (1962 and 1980), the International Music Council UNESCO Award(1975) and the Sangeet Natak Akademi fellowship (1976) to name a few. Ravi Shankar is an Honorary Member of the United Nations Rostrum of Composers and Honorary Member of the Academy of Arts and Letters. In 1986 he was nominated as a member of the Rajya Sabha. The Highest Civilian award in India, Bharat Ratna, was bestowed on Ravi Shankar in 1999. He also received the prestigious International Prize for Film and Media for 1999 instituted by the German government’s Art and Exhibition Centre. In February 2000, he was honoured with the highest French civilian award Commandeur de la legion d Honneur.  In early 2001, Ravi Shankar was conferred with Honorary Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire (KBE).

                                                     

q       Sabri Khan

Sabri Khan (b.1927) is one of the most renowned Sarangi players. He was initiated into the art of Sarangi playing at the age of seven by his grandfather Haji Mohammad Khan, and later continued his training under his father Chhajju Khan and uncle Laddan Khan of Rampur, both accomplished exponents of Sarangi. He belongs to the Senia Gharana of Rampur, and plays the Sarangi solo and as an accompaniment to vocal performances. He has also played with the famous violinist, Yehudi Menuhin. He has been honoured with the Sahitya Kala Parishad Award, Shobna Kala Sangam Award, Begum Akhtar Award, Emotional Integration Council Award and the Sangeet Natak Academy Award (1986).

 

o       Shivkumar Sharma

Pandit Shivkumar Sharma (b. 1938) is recognised in India and abroad as the most accomplished exponent of Santoor. His ingenious, imaginative and innovative zest has transformed Santoor, the little-known Kashmiri folk instrument, into a full-fledged solo concert instrument in Indian classical music. Along with Pandit Hari Prasad Chaurasia, he composed the music for the Hindi films Silsila and Chandni, scores of which are still very popular. Shiv Kumar Sharma had also been a vocalist and a tabla player in his early years.  He has been honoured with Padma Shri and the Sangeet Natak Akademi Award (1987) for his unique contributions to Indian classical music. He has the honorary citizenship of the city of Baltimore and has given special performances before the House of Lords in Britain and in front of the Queen of Holland.

 

o       Dr. L. Subramaniam

Dr. L. Subramaniam is one of the best violinists of India and is widely acclaimed and recognized all over the world. Through his superb blending of Carnatic and Western classical music, Dr. Subramaniam has taken many a venues, like the Bolshoi Theater, the Lincoln Center, Royal Albert Hall and United Nations, by storm. He was also a featured soloist in "All the World's Violins" held in Belgium along with Sir Yehudi Menuhin and Stephane Grappelli. Dr. Subramanium has also scored the music for movies like Salaam Bombay and Mississipi Masala, besides featuring as a soloist in the film Little Buddha by Bernardo Bertolucci and Ismail Merchant's Cotton Mary. He was also the music advisor for Peter Brook's historic stage production of the Mahabharata. He has also recorded his East-West fusion compositions with jazz greats like Stephane Grappelli, Herbie Hancock, Joe Sample, Maynard Ferguson, Hubert Laws, George Duke, Stanley Clarke, Larry Coryell, and Tony Williams.  Over the years, Subramaniam has written, conducted and performed with world's greatest orchestras including the New York Philharmonic (Fantasy on Vedic Chants), the Swiss Romande (Shanti Priya), the Oslo Philharmonic (Concerto for Two Violins) and the Berlin Opera (Global Symphony).  Subramaniam has over a hundred recordings including a five-volume Anthology of Indian Music for the Ocora label of Radio France. Subramaniam was the first non-Westerner to to receive the "Best Composer of the Year" award from NRK P2 radio station of Norway for his compostion Global Music. In 1992, Subramaniam, along with his late wife Vijayashree, launched the annual Lakshminarayana Global Music Festival in memory of his father, that brings together eminent  artists from all over the world.  Subramaniam's book Euphony is part of his efforts to spread awareness of his heritage.  His albums include From the Ashes,Eulogy and The Southern Key. He has been conferred with Padma Bhushan (2001), Padma Shri and Sangeet Natak Akademi Award.

o       Vilayat Khan

Ustad Vilayat Khan (1928-2004), son of late Ustad Inayat Khan, was the scion of the Ittawa gharana whose stalwarts traced their line back to Tansen of Akbar's court. He is one of most renowned sitar players of India and occupies an important place in the world of classical instrumental music. Vilayat Khan's unique contribution to Indian classical music is introducing a new style of sitar playing now called Vilayatkhaani baaj. This is the gayaki ang or full-fledged vocal style, which he innovated, perfected and passed on to a school of disciples. He wrought a total change in the dimension and impact of the music by modifying the base, frets, bridge and strings of the sitar. His creativity was marked by the spontaneous and automatic formation of tans, kan, zamzama thus evolving the rare and difficult Gayaki ang, of which he was an innovator. Vilayat Khan has received numerous awards and honours for his contribution to Indian music and has toured India, Europe, the Soviet Union, East Africa, China, Afghanistan, Iran and the United States.  He had played Festival of India in Britain (1951).

 

o       T. H. Vinayakram

Sri Thetakudi Harihara Vinayakram, affectionately known as Vikku, is renowned for his beautiful drumming on the ghatam. Son of the noted and talented musician and percussionist, Kalaimamani T.R. Harihara Sharma, Vinayakram was a child prodigy. He started his concert career at the tender age of thirteen and soon became renowned for his crisp play and deep knowledge of rhythm. Vinayakram first became known in the West in the mid 1970s as a member of the group Shakti, which consisted of the jazz guitarist John McLaughlin, violinist L. Shankar, tabla maestro Zakir Hussain, and himself. The extraordinary speed and precision of his duets with Zakir Hussain captivated international audiences. Vinayakram has a number of titles and awards to his name, including: Astana Vidhwan of Kanchi Kama Koti Peetam, Ghatam Nagamani given by Sri Jayendra Saraswathi, Kalaimamini given by the government of Tamil Nadu, and the First Sangeet Natak Akademi Award for Ghatam in 1988. He is also the first South Indian artist to ever receive a Grammy Award in 1991 for Best World Music Album for his participation in Mickey Hart's "Planet Drum" in which he played Ghatam and Morsingh. In addition, Vinayakram was a nominee for the 38th Annual Grammy Awards for Best World Music Album for his participation in 'Raga Aberi' along with L. Shankar on the ten string double violin and Zakir Hussain on the tabla. Vinaykram has also published two books: 'Art of Mridangam' in English and 'Mridanga Pada Bhodhini' in Tamil.

 

o       Zakir Hussain

Ustad Zakir Hussain (b. 1951) is the reigning king of tabla players. He is the son of renowned tabla maestro Ustad Alla Rakha. He played his first formal concert at the age of 12 years with Ustad Ali Akbar Khan. He is internationally acclaimed for his ingenious techniques and dexterity. He has taken tabla playing to new and greater heights by rediscovering the subtle nuances of this instrument, along with his unique ability to communicate with his audience. He is also well versed with other percussion instruments like the dholak and khol. He has scored music for films like The Little Buddha of Bernardo Bertolucci, Ismail Merchant’s In Custody and Heat and Dust, Cappola’s Apocalypse Now, Merchant Ivory’s A Perfect Murder and for some American television serials. Besides accompanying many Indian classical musicians, Ustad Zakir Hussain plays with the Indo-jazz group called Shakti. He has played with the rock group called Grateful Dead and many jazz musicians. In 1973, he took over the Tal Vadya Rhythm Band, which later evolved into the Diga Rhythm Band, and more recently, Zakir Hussain and the Rhythm Experience. Zakir Hussain had teamed up with co-composers Philip Glass and Mickey Hart to write the score for the Atlanta Olympic Games, 1996. In 1987, his first solo release, "Making Music", was acclaimed "one of the most inspired East-West fusion albums ever recorded". He has 145 albums to his credit and is teaching tabla at Washington, California, Long Beach, Los Angeles, Port and other Universities. He is the recipient of several honours and awards, which include, Padma Shri (1988), Sangeet Natak Akademi Award (1991) and the Indo-American Award (1990).




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