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THE ORIGIN OF RACES IN INDIA
species known as Ramapithecus
was found in the Siwalik foothills of the northwestern Himalayas.
This species believed to be the first in the line of hominids
lived some 14 million years ago. Researches have found that a
species resembling the Australopithecus lived in India some 2
million years ago. Scientists have so far not been able to account
for an evolutionary gap of as much as 12 million years since the
appearance of Ramapithecus.
people of India belong to different anthropological stocks.
According to Dr. B. S. Guha, the population of India is
derived from six main ethnic groups:
Negritos: The Negritos or
the brachycephalic (broad headed) from Africa were the earliest
people to inhabit India. They are survived in their original
habitat in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Jarewas,
and Great Andamanis tribes are the examples. Studies have indicated that
the Onges tribes have been living in the Andamans for the last
60,000 years. Some hill tribes like Irulas,
Kodars, Paniyans and Kurumbas
are found only in patches among the hills of south India on the
Pro-Australoids or Austrics:
This group was the next to come to India after the Negritos.
They represent a race of people, with wavy hair plentifully
distributed over their brown bodies, long heads with low foreheads
and prominent eye ridges, noses with low and broad roots, thick
jaws, large palates and teeth and small chins.
Austrics tribes, which are spread over the whole of India,
Myanmar and the islands of South East Asia, are said to
"form the bedrock of the people".
The Austrics were the main builders of the Indus Valley
Civilisation. They cultivated rice and vegetables and made sugar
from sugarcane. Their language has survived in the Kol or Munda
(Mundari) in Eastern and Central India.
Mongoloids: These people
have features that are common to those of the people of Mongolia,
China and Tibet. These
tribal groups are located in the Northeastern part of India in
states like Assam, Nagaland and Meghalya and also in Ladakh and
Sikkim. Generally, they are people of yellow complexion, oblique
eyes, high cheekbones, sparse hair and medium height.
Mediterranean or Dravidian:
This group came to India from the Southwest Asia and appear to be
people of the same stock as the peoples of Asia Minor and Crete
and the pre-Hellenic Aegeans of Greece. They are reputed to have
built up the city civilization of the Indus Valley, whose remains
have been found at Mohenjodaro and Harappa and other Indus cities.
The Dravidians must have spread to the whole of India, supplanting
Austrics and Negritos alike. Dravidians comprise all the three
sub-types, Paleo-Mediterranean, the true Mediterranean and
Oriental Mediterranean. This group constitutes the bulk of the
scheduled castes in the North India. This group has a sub-type
called Oriental group.
These include the Alpinoids,
Dinaries and Armenois. The Coorgis and Parsis fall into this category.
(6) Nordics: Nordics or
Indo-Aryans are the last immigrants into India. Nordic Aryans
were a branch of Indo-Iranians, who had originally left their
homes in Central Asia, some 5000 years ago, and had settled in
Mesopotamia for some centuries. The Aryans must have come into
India between 2000 and 1500 B.C. Their first home in India was
western and northern Punjab, from where they spread to the Valley
of the Ganga and beyond. These tribes are now mainly found in the
Northwest and the Northwest Frontier Province (NWFP). Many of
these tribes belong to the "upper castes".